First, a brief repetition of terms from the theory, based on numerous examples, conclusions are drawn for everyday life. Afterwards, we discuss typical reasons for a lack of robustness in the routine with the help of real cases. Many a cause is also mentioned, which one would not think about without further ado. The view is thus also directed to such „inconspicuous“ things as metal frit, stirrer, plastic attachments, vials, neon light, detergent, degasser, etc. In group work here is learned how to quickly identify causes of error and effectively fixes them. For this we discuss many chromatograms that reflect typical situations. Finally, with the help of self-developed flowcharts, the „symptom-cause“ thinking is deliberately practiced for several situations.
- Systematic troubleshooting for a change in retention time, peak area, and peak height – where do I start, where do I stop?
- Which problems are common, despite qualified devices and validated methods?
- The shape of the peak changes – is it the pH, the quality of the package or just a single bubble?
- Spikes, ghost peaks, noise, baseline fluctuations – what causes can I exclude directly by looking at the chromatogram?
- Which errors are typical for the pump, autosampler, detector?
- What errors during sample preparation are noticeable in the chromatogram?
- How do I recognize weaknesses in a method intended for transfer?
- Suggestions and schemes for the quick limitation of possible causes
- HPLC users with many years of practical experience and solid HPLC skills. We strongly recommend the prior attendance of the course „HPLC for advanced users“ and/or „Troubleshooting and Error Prevention in HPLC“
- Fast error recognition even in case of difficult problems and systematic troubleshooting